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This geom is used to visualise SpatRaster objects (see terra::rast()). The geom is designed for visualise the object by layers, as terra::plot() does.

For plotting SpatRaster objects as map tiles (i.e. RGB SpatRaster), use geom_spatraster_rgb().

The underlying implementation is based on ggplot2::geom_raster().

stat_spatraster() is provided as a complementary function, so the geom can be modified.


  mapping = aes(),
  na.rm = TRUE,
  show.legend = NA,
  inherit.aes = FALSE,
  interpolate = FALSE,
  maxcell = 5e+05,
  use_coltab = TRUE,

  mapping = aes(),
  geom = "raster",
  na.rm = TRUE,
  show.legend = NA,
  inherit.aes = FALSE,
  maxcell = 5e+05,


Based on the layer_spatial() implementation on ggspatial package. Thanks to Dewey Dunnington and ggspatial contributors.



Set of aesthetic mappings created by ggplot2::aes(). See Aesthetics specially in the use of fill aesthetic.


A SpatRaster object.


If TRUE, the default, missing values are silently removed. If FALSE, missing values are removed with a warning.


logical. Should this layer be included in the legends? NA, the default, includes if any aesthetics are mapped. FALSE never includes, and TRUE always includes. It can also be a named logical vector to finely select the aesthetics to display.


If FALSE, overrides the default aesthetics, rather than combining with them.


If TRUE interpolate linearly, if FALSE (the default) don't interpolate.


positive integer. Maximum number of cells to use for the plot.


Logical. Only applicable to SpatRaster objects that have an associated coltab. Should the coltab be used on the plot? See also scale_fill_coltab().


Other arguments passed on to layer()'s params argument. These arguments broadly fall into one of 4 categories below. Notably, further arguments to the position argument, or aesthetics that are required can not be passed through .... Unknown arguments that are not part of the 4 categories below are ignored.

  • Static aesthetics that are not mapped to a scale, but are at a fixed value and apply to the layer as a whole. For example, colour = "red" or linewidth = 3. The geom's documentation has an Aesthetics section that lists the available options. The 'required' aesthetics cannot be passed on to the params. Please note that while passing unmapped aesthetics as vectors is technically possible, the order and required length is not guaranteed to be parallel to the input data.

  • When constructing a layer using a stat_*() function, the ... argument can be used to pass on parameters to the geom part of the layer. An example of this is stat_density(geom = "area", outline.type = "both"). The geom's documentation lists which parameters it can accept.

  • Inversely, when constructing a layer using a geom_*() function, the ... argument can be used to pass on parameters to the stat part of the layer. An example of this is geom_area(stat = "density", adjust = 0.5). The stat's documentation lists which parameters it can accept.

  • The key_glyph argument of layer() may also be passed on through .... This can be one of the functions described as key glyphs, to change the display of the layer in the legend.


The geometric object to use display the data. Recommended geom for SpatRaster are "raster" (the default), "point","text" and "label".


A ggplot2 layer

terra equivalent



When the SpatRaster does not present a crs (i.e., terra::crs(rast) == "") the geom does not make any assumption on the scales.

On SpatRaster that have a crs, the geom uses ggplot2::coord_sf() to adjust the scales. That means that also the SpatRaster may be reprojected.


geom_spatraster() understands the following aesthetics:

If fill is not provided, geom_spatraster() creates a ggplot2 layer with all the layers of the SpatRaster object. Use facet_wrap(~lyr) to display properly the SpatRaster layers.

If fill is used, it should contain the name of one layer that is present on the SpatRaster (i.e. geom_spatraster(data = rast, aes(fill = <name_of_lyr>)). Names of the layers can be retrieved using names(rast).

Using geom_spatraster(..., mapping = aes(fill = NULL)) or geom_spatraster(..., fill = <color value(s)>) would create a layer with no mapped fill aesthetic.

fill can use computed variables.

For alpha use computed variable. See section Computed variables.


stat_spatraster() understands the same aesthetics than geom_spatraster() when using geom = "raster" (the default):

When geom = "raster" the fill parameter would behave as in geom_spatraster(). If another geom is used stat_spatraster() would understand the aesthetics of the required geom and aes(fill = <name_of_lyr>) would not be applicable.

Note also that mapping of aesthetics x and y is provided by default, so the user does not need to add those aesthetics on aes(). In all the cases the aesthetics should be mapped by using computed variables. See section Computed variables and Examples.


You can use facet_wrap(~lyr) for creating a faceted plot by each layer of the SpatRaster object. See ggplot2::facet_wrap() for details.

Computed variables

This geom computes internally some variables that are available for use as aesthetics, using (for example) aes(alpha = after_stat(value)) (see ggplot2::after_stat()).

  • after_stat(value): Values of the SpatRaster.

  • after_stat(lyr): Name of the layer.


# \donttest{
# Avg temperature on spring in Castille and Leon (Spain)
file_path <- system.file("extdata/cyl_temp.tif", package = "tidyterra")

temp_rast <- rast(file_path)


# Display a single layer
#> [1] "tavg_04" "tavg_05" "tavg_06"

ggplot() +
  geom_spatraster(data = temp_rast, aes(fill = tavg_04)) +
  # You can use coord_sf
  coord_sf(crs = 3857) +
  scale_fill_grass_c(palette = "celsius")

# Display facets
ggplot() +
  geom_spatraster(data = temp_rast) +
  facet_wrap(~lyr, ncol = 2) +
  scale_fill_grass_b(palette = "celsius", breaks = seq(0, 20, 2.5))

# Non spatial rasters

no_crs <- rast(crs = NA, extent = c(0, 100, 0, 100), nlyr = 1)
values(no_crs) <- seq_len(ncell(no_crs))

ggplot() +
  geom_spatraster(data = no_crs)

# Downsample

ggplot() +
  geom_spatraster(data = no_crs, maxcell = 25)
#> <SpatRaster> resampled to 32 cells.

# }

# \donttest{
# Using stat_spatraster
# Default
ggplot() +
  stat_spatraster(data = temp_rast) +

# Using points
ggplot() +
    data = temp_rast,
    aes(color = after_stat(value)),
    geom = "point", maxcell = 250
  ) +
  scale_colour_viridis_c(na.value = "transparent") +
#> <SpatRaster> resampled to 266 cells.

# Using points and labels

r_single <- temp_rast %>% select(1)

ggplot() +
    data = r_single,
    aes(color = after_stat(value)),
    geom = "point",
    maxcell = 2000
  ) +
    data = r_single,
    aes(label = after_stat(round(value, 2))),
    geom = "label",
    alpha = 0.85,
    maxcell = 20
  ) +
  scale_colour_viridis_c(na.value = "transparent")
#> <SpatRaster> resampled to 2067 cells.
#> <SpatRaster> resampled to 24 cells.

# }